Why is “C” the default drive letter assigned to your computer hard disk instead of A or B?

Why is the default drive in MS-Windows computers the C drive? The drives beyond that one are labelled D, E, and so on. If you plug in USB drives, they get F and G. So yeah, what about A and B?

Early PCs didn’t usually come with internal mass-storage devices due to the expense. Instead, they generally had “floppy” disk reader which used to read 5 1/4″ floppy disks, initially labeled as “A” in MS-DOS and certain other operating systems. Some systems came with two such floppy disk drives necessitating the need for a “B”.

When hard disk drives became standard in most PCs in the later 1980s, since the first two letters were already commonly used for these floppy drives, they logically labeled the third storage device “C”. Times changed and eventually, floppy disk drives were entirely removed from computers, but somehow the label ‘C’ stuck with hard disk drives. In fact, most Windows computers come with the first partition labelled as ‘Local Disk C:’ for that same reason.

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Gmail Will Start Blocking JavaScript Attachments by February 13, Citing Security Reasons

Google has announced that it will start blocking JavaScript attachments in Gmail soon, in an attempt to reduce malicious attacks. In a blog post, the company announced that the restriction on .js file attachments will start on February 13.

Notably, .js files are not the only ones that have been blocked, as Gmail already bans use of certain file attachments like .exe, .msc, and .bat. The company says it is restricting certain file attachments for security reasons. If you try to send .js file attachments (even in compressed form) from February 13, Gmail will block the attachment and will show an in-product warning explaining the reason why.

The warning message will read, "There are a number of reasons why you may see the 'This message was blocked because its content presents a potential security issue' error in Gmail. Gmail blocks messages that may spread viruses like messages that include executable files or certain links."
Google has however recommended workarounds to share .js attachment files and suggests users to do it via use of Google Drive, Google Cloud Storage, or other storage solutions to share or send files.

Google lists (https://support.google.com/mail/answer/6590#messageswattachments) some of the reasons why it blocks the use of certain attachments including their compressed form (like .gz or .bz2 files) or when found within archives (like .zip or .tgz files) as they may be documents with malicious macros. Google also blocks archives whose listed file content is password protected or whose content includes a password protected archive.

One of the possible reasons for Google to block .js attachment files may be due to increasing popularity of JavaScripts as form of malware. Once malicious .js file downloaded can help attackers steal data from the system.

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Rainbows do occur at night - Moonbow

Moonbows are similar to rainbows, but they are created by moonlight instead of direct sunlight.

Moonbows or lunar rainbows are rare natural atmospheric phenomena that occur when the Moon’s light is reflected and refracted off water droplets in the air.

Moonbows are rarer than rainbows because a variety of weather and astronomical conditions have to be just right for them to be created.

Water droplets must be present in the air in the opposite direction of the moon.
Moonbows occur on the opposite side of the Moon and tend to look white to the human eye. This is because their colors are not bright enough to be perceived by the receptors in the human eye. It is possible, however, to view the colors in a moonbow using long exposure photography. The Moon has to be very low in the sky – no more than 42 degrees from the horizon. The Moon phase has to be a Full Moon or nearly full.
The sky must be very dark for a moonbow to be observed – any bright light can obscure it.

Moonbows are more frequent in some locations around the world. Most of these locations tend to have waterfalls, which create layers of mist in the air. Some of these locations are the Yosemite National Park in California and Cumberland Falls State Resort Park in Kentucky, U.S.; Victoria Falls on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe; and Waimea in Hawaii, U.S.

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Why is there bumps on the F and J keyboard keys?

The raised bumps on the ‘F’ and ‘J’ keys are placed there for proper position of fingers while typing. For ease of use of the keyboard, these keys have ridges on them so that if you are speed-typing without looking at the keyboard a lot, then the ridges will help you position your fingers if in case you fly off the handle.

For the correct typing position, the ridges are placed on those two keys so that you place your index fingers on them.

Positioning your left index finger on the ‘F’ key and your right index finger on the ‘J’ key leaves the other three fingers of your left hand to rest on the ‘D,’ ‘S,’ and ‘A’ keys while the remaining fingers of your right hand rest on the ‘K,’ ‘L,’ and ‘:/;’ (colon) keys. The thumbs of both hands should ideally rest on the space bar.

These improvements came to keyboards as a result of a patent filed by June E. Botich in 2002 and all keyboards manufactured after that contain the ridges.

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All Gmail users have two E-mail addresses

When you create a Gmail account, you actually get two email addresses – one is the regular @gmail.com address while the second email address has @googlemail.com in the domain.


That means if your email address in Gmail is something like abc@gmail.com, all email messages that are sent to abc@googlemail.com will also be delivered to your own Gmail account.

So whenever you will get any email to abc@googlemail.com it will get delivered to same account. So you can use abc@googlemail.com as a personal address like giving to your friends, relatives, using on personal visiting card, etc and abc@gmail.com you can use it for public places like your blog, website, etc.

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The dots on dominoes and dice are called "pips"

Pips are small but easily countable items. "Pip" has been used not only to denote the dots on dominoes, but also the dots on dice, as well as the marks on playing cards and sometimes as a synonym for "dot" in morse code.

The small, hard seeds of some fruit, such as those in an apple, orange, or lemon are also called "pips".

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Chocolate was once used as currency

Ancient Mesoamerican civilizations used to give the cacao tree an important place in society. The Mayans and the Aztecs used to use cocoa beans as currency. Crushed cocoa beans were used to make a bitter liquid called xocoatl. Only royalty and the best military warriors could gain access to the drink.

Chocolate, namely cocoa beans have been used for thousands of years. As early as 250 A.D., ancient civilizations of Mexico and South America used the cocoa bean. It was used as currency.

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Potatoes absorb Wi-Fi signals and are used to test/improve internet signals on airplanes

While major airlines offer in-flight Wi-Fi on many flights, the signal strength can be spotty. Airlines and aircraft makers have been striving to improve this with the growing use of wireless devices and the number of people who don't want to be disconnected, even 35,000 feet up.

Airplane company uses sacks of potatoes as stand-ins for passengers as they worked to eliminate weak spots in in-flight wireless signals. They needed full planes to get accurate results during signal testing, but they couldn't ask people to sit motionless for days while data was gathered. 

It turns out that potatoes – because of their water content and chemistry – absorb and reflect radio wave signals much the same way as the human body does, making them suitable substitutes for airline passengers. Passenger seats on a decommissioned plane were loaded with huge sacks of the tubers for several days as signal strengths were checked. Wireless signals fluctuate randomly in the enclosed space of an aeroplane cabin as people move about. This means that signal distribution is uneven throughout the cabin, with weaker and stronger connectivity in different seats.

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Why is there a tiny hole in airplane windows?

The hole in the bottom of your airplane window is actually a very important safety feature. It's all-too-easy to let your mind wander when you're confined to a tiny box of space while hurtling 40,000 feet in the air at hundreds of miles per hour, but rest assured: every single window on the airplane has the same hole. More officially, it's called a breather hole and it's used to regulate the amount of pressure that passes between the window's inner and outer panes. In short, the system ensures that the outer pane bears the most pressure so that if there were a situation that caused added strain on the window, it's the outside panel that gives out (meaning you can still breathe). As shown in the Boeing 737 maintenance manual (the most widely produced jet airliner in aviation history), the window structure consists of three layers of acrylic – a tough, transparent and flexible resin – although only two of them have an actual structural function.

As can be noted in the diagram shown above, the breather hole is located in the middle layer of the window. This little puncture acts as a bleed valve ensuring that the pressure between the last two layers and the cabin always remains the same. This is necessary as a way of preserving the middle layer (the extra safety one) so it is only exposed to severe pressure differences in cases of emergency – that is, if the last layer the window is fractured in some way.

Furthermore, any possible cracks in the outermost layer of the window is enough to justify an emergency landing – even if the middle layer is fully capable, in principle, to maintain the appropriate cabin pressure conditions

The breather hole also serves to prevent freezing and fogging between the outer layers of the window.

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Periodic Table's 7th Row Completed With Discovery Of Four New Elements

Officials from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have confirmed the discovery of elements 113, 115, 117, and 118, announcing that there is now enough evidence to give them permanent places on the periodic table, which means they’ll also need new, official names.

You won’t find these four elements in nature - they are synthetic elements that can only be produced in the lab, and because they decay in a matter of seconds, their existence has been extremely difficult to confirm. Until now, elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 had temporary names and positions on the seventh row of the periodic table because scientists have struggled to create them more than once.

The three remaining elements, 115, 117, and 118 - known temporarily as ununpentium (Uup), ununseptium (Uus), and ununoctium (Uuo), respectively - will also get new names.

The organisation advises that the new elements can be named after a mythological concept, a mineral, a place or country, a property, or a scientist, and will be presented for public review for five months before a final decision about the new official name and symbol is made.

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